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Difficulty in group membership management and multicast packet forwarding over dynamic topologies like Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANET) prompted for alternative protocols and techniques. Earlier Efficient Geographic Multicast Protocol (EGMP) that uses a virtual-zone-based structure where a network-wide zone-based bi-directional tree is constructed to implement scalable and efficient group membership management was introduced. The position information of each node is used to guide the zone structure development, tree construction and packet forwarding in multicast environment, Even though this method efficiently reduces the control overhead, data transmission overhead, and multicast group joining delays.
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