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This paper presents a lightweight type-and-effect system for Java programs that features two major innovations over extant object-oriented effects systems: initialization effects, which are writes to an object's state while it is being constructed, and quiescing fields, which are fields that are never written after an object is constructed. The paper also presents a novel taxonomy of degrees of method purity in object-oriented programs, which characterizes methods whose effects are confined to their receiver object.
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