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This paper develops a theory of multi-instance (mi) security and applies it to provide the first proof-based support for the classical practice of salting in password-based cryptography. Mi-security comes into play in settings (like password-based cryptography) where it is computationally feasible to compromise a single instance (si), and provides a second line of defense, aiming to ensure (in the case of passwords, via salting) that the effort to compromise all of some large number m of instances grows linearly with m.
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