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Single-rate multicasting may yield low utilization of the network resources when a subset of the receivers creates a bottleneck for the whole multicast group. Thus, practical multi-rate multicasting strategies are required to allow users with better channels to achieve maximum performance. While earlier studies have investigated such mechanisms using routing strategies over fixed trees, in this paper, the authors consider the possibility of using network coding without a given sub-graph. Their scheme identifies the optimal routes and provides the utility maximizing rate allocation and coding solution. They also propose and investigate a nested multicasting method to reduce the complexity of the original scheme for practical implementation.
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