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Quantifying the notion of fairness is under-explored when users request different ratios of multiple distinct resource types. A typical example is datacenters processing jobs with heterogeneous resource requirements on CPU, memory, etc. A generalization of max-min fairness to multiple resources was recently proposed in, but may suffer from significant loss of efficiency. This paper develops a unifying framework addressing this fairness-efficiency tradeoff with multiple resource types. The authors develop two families of fairness functions which provide different tradeoffs, characterize the effect of user requests' heterogeneity, and prove conditions under which these fairness measures satisfy the Pareto efficiency, sharing incentive, and envy-free properties. Intuitions behind the analysis are explained in two visualizations of multi-resource allocation.
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