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Underwater Sensor Networks (USN) is used for harsh oceanographic missions where human operation is dangerous or impossible. Localization is essential for USNs. It is required for data tagging, node tracking and position-based routing algorithms. Localization is challenging because Global Positioning System (GPS) is not available in underwater; at the same time, existing GPS-less schemes based on fixed landmarks have high communication cost. Such cost is critical in Mobile Underwater Sensor Networks (MUSN), since sensor nodes drift with the ocean currents, thus requiring continuous refresh. In this paper, the authors propose a multi-stage localization scheme using mobile beacons.
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