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Improving the efficiency of data dissemination algorithms and protocols to mobile sink remains as an interesting research and engineering issue, especial for large-scale wireless sensor network. As the node energy and resources are limited, theses protocols should meet energy-efficiency, low delay and high delivery ratio requirements. Although an energy-efficient dissemination tree (d-tree) can be constructed with sink mobility, the delayed handoff could lead to suboptimal routing trees for a substantial amount of time as the network grows larger, and also the efficiency heavily relied on the location of the sink, thus it may offset the load balance resulting from hierarchical tree structure.
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