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One of the key problems in Cognitive Radio (CR) is the detection of primary activity in order to determine which parts of the spectrum are available for opportunistic access. This detection task is challenging, since the wireless environment often results in very low SNR conditions. Moreover, calibration errors and imperfect analog components at the CR spectral monitor result in uncertainties in the noise spectrum, making the problem more difficult. In this paper, the authors present a new multi-antenna detector which is based on the fact that the observation noise processes are spatially uncorrelated, whereas any primary signal present should result in spatial correlation.
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