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An ad hoc network is a multi-hop wireless network formed by a collection of mobile nodes without the intervention of fixed infrastructure. Multicasting is an efficient way of providing services for group oriented applications. Multicasting involves transmission of packets to a group of nodes identified by a single destination address. Swarm intelligence refers to complex behaviors that arise from very simple individual behaviors and interactions, which is often observed in nature, especially among social insects such as ants. Although each individual (an ant) has little intelligence and simply follows basic rules using local information obtained from the environment, such as ant's pheromone trail laying and following behavior, globally optimized behaviors, such as finding a shortest path, emerge when they work collectively as a group.
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