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When deployed for long-term tasks, the energy required to support sensor nodes' activities is far more than the energy that can be preloaded in their batteries. No matter how the battery energy is conserved, once the energy is used up, the network life terminates. Therefore, guaranteeing long-term energy supply has persisted as a big challenge. To address this problem, the authors propose a Node Replacement and Reclamation (NRR) strategy, with which a mobile robot or human labor called Mobile Repairman (MR) periodically traverses the sensor network, reclaims nodes with low or no power supply, replaces them with fully-charged ones, and brings the reclaimed nodes back to an energy station for recharging.
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