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Time synchronization is important for a variety of applications in wireless sensor networks including scheduling communication resources, coordinating sensor wake/sleep cycles, and aligning signals for distributed transmission/reception. This paper describes a non-hierarchical approach to time synchronization in wireless sensor networks that has low overhead and can be implemented at the physical and/or MAC layers. Unlike most of the prior approaches, the approach described in this paper allows all nodes to use exactly the same distributed algorithm and does not require local averaging of measurements from other nodes. Analytical results show that the non-hierarchical approach can provide monotonic expected convergence of both drifts and offsets under broad conditions on the network topology and local clock update step size.
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