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Target monitoring is an important application of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, the authors develop an energy-efficient miner monitoring system with sensor nodes. To keep monitoring miners' activities in tunnels, periodical localization and timely data transmission are both required. Since the localization and data transmission much depend on the Media Access Control (MAC) scheme, co-design of localization and MAC scheme is actually needed for the resource-constrained system, which is seldom discussed in existing related works. Moreover, as sensor nodes form an ultra-sparse network with linear topology in tunnels, it is a challenge for existing range-free localization methods to localize targets.
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