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It is probably fair to say that the effects of the growing international fragmentation of production chains on home country labor markets are still not fully understood. In recent decades, firms in industrialized countries have increasingly engaged in offshoring, by either relocating low-skilled, labor-intensive production steps to foreign affiliates (vertical FDI) or by buying intermediate inputs from unaffiliated foreign suppliers, i.e. international outsourcing (the authors follow Helpman (2006) in defining offshoring as comprising both vertical FDI and international outsourcing).
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