On E-Vote Integrity in the Case of Malicious Voter Computers
Norway has started to implement e-voting (over the Internet, and by using voters' own computers) within the next few years. The vulnerability of voter's computers was identified as a serious threat to e-voting. In this paper, the authors study the vote integrity of e-voting when the voter computers cannot be trusted. First, they make a number of assumptions about the available infrastructure. In particular, they assume the existence of two out-of-band channels that do not depend on the voter computers. The first channel is used to transmit integrity check codes to the voters prior the election, and the second channel is used to transmit a check code, that corresponds to her vote, back to a voter just after his or her e-vote vast cast.