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In Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), hierarchical architecture and distributed approaches are more practical than flat architecture and centralized approaches. In this paper, the authors propose a suite of protocols that achieve a distributed planning and routing scheme for MANETs. The proposed suite, which is composed of three protocols, offers scalability and extends network lifetime. The first protocol, i.e., the Fast Distributed connected Dominating Set (FDDS), constructs the virtual backbone by designing a fast distributed hierarchical algorithm that finds a Connected Dominating Set (CDS) in the network graph. The constructed virtual backbone takes into account the node's limited energy, mobility, and traffic pattern.
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