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Secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC) allows two or more mutually mistrusting parties to evaluate a function on private data without revealing additional information. Many potential applications are motivated by business needs, e.g., running auctions where no-one gains any information on non-winning bids, or basing decisions on aggregate data from multiple sources. Examples include benchmarking and supply chain management. Surprisingly many applications become possible given only a small number of primitives - equality, greater-than, and integer division - and improving any primitives immediately allows more efficient high-level protocols.
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