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In this paper, the authors study stealthy false-data attacks against state estimators in power networks. The focus is on applications in SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems where measurement data is corrupted by a malicious attacker. They introduce two security indices for the state estimators. The indices quantify the least effort needed to achieve attack goals while avoiding bad-data alarms in the power network control center (stealthy attacks).The indices depend on the physical topology of the power network and the available measurements, and can help the system operator to identify sparse data manipulation patterns.
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