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Conventional Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) channel correlation models focus on describing the complex amplitude correlation of resolvable Multi-Path Components (MPCs). It has recently been shown that the Time-of-Arrival (ToA) correlation of resolvable MPCs, which has largely been ignored in the literature so far, is important for characterizing the Space-Frequency (SF) correlation of MIMO channels in the Ultra-WideBand (UWB) regime. The authors demonstrate that, compared with a conventional model that only considers amplitude correlation, a UWB MIMO channel model taking into account both amplitude and ToA correlations leads to different theoretical maximum diversity order, numerical structure of the SF channel covariance matrix, spatial correlation function, and diversity performance.
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