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A cryptographic accumulator is a scheme where a set of elements is represented by a single short value. This value, along with another value called witness allows to prove membership into the set. In their survey on accumulators [FN02], Fazzio and Nicolisi noted that the Camenisch and Lysyanskaya's construction[CL02] was such that the time to update a witness after m changes to the accumulated value was proportional to m. They posed the question whether batch update was possible, namely if it was possible to build a cryptographic accumulator where the time to update witnesses is independent from the number of changes in the accumulated set.
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