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The authors present an extensive set of experimental results on two remote-access wireless sensor network testbeds that illustrate the interplay between network connectivity and energy consumption. Using collection on top of a duty-cycled link layer, they observe that the energy consumption of unicast traffic is heavily affected by insufficient connectivity conditions. Specifically, the presence of connectivity outliers that require a large number of retransmissions to overcome transitional links has a significant impact on the energy consumption of the whole radio neighborhood of the outliers. At the other end of the connectivity spectrum, high connectivity may have a significant impact on the energy consumption of broadcast traffic, because it is conducive to contention and overhearing.
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