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The authors revisit the problem of connection management for reliable transport. At one extreme, a pure Soft-State (SS) approach safely removes the state of a connection at the sender and receiver once the state timers expire without the need for explicit removal messages. And new connections are established without an explicit handshaking phase. On the other hand, a hybrid Hard-State/Soft-State (HS+SS) approach (as in TCP) uses both explicit handshaking as well as timer-based management of the connection's state. In this paper, they consider the worst-case scenario of reliable single-message communication, and develop a common analytical model that can be instantiated to capture either the SS approach or the HS+SS approach.
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