On the Requirements for Successful GPS Spoofing Attacks
An increasing number of wireless applications rely on GPS signals for localization, navigation, and time synchronization. However, civilian GPS signals are known to be susceptible to spoofing attacks which make GPS receivers in range believe that they reside at locations different than their real physical locations. In this paper, the authors investigate the requirements for successful GPS spoofing attacks on individuals and groups of victims with civilian or military GPS receivers. In particular, they are interested in identifying from which locations and with which precision the attacker needs to generate its signals in order to successfully spoof the receivers.