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Five attributes of emission generating technologies are identified and a concept of by production is introduced, which implies these five attributes. Murty and Russell  characterization of technologies, which requires distinguishing between intended production of firms and nature's laws of emission generation, is shown to be both necessary and sufficient for by-production. While intended production could be postulated to satisfy standard input and output free-disposability, these will necessarily be violated by nature's emission generation mechanism, which satisfies costly disposability of emission as defined in Murty . Marginal technical and economic costs of abatement are derived for technologies exhibiting by-production.
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