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Time synchronization is an extremely important service in wireless sensor networks. The notion of time on a node is maintained using crystal oscillators. These oscillators are designed to oscillate at a particular frequency called the nominal frequency, but typically there is always some deviation. This deviation is caused due to a wide variety of reasons which include manufacturing variations, environmental factors such as temperature, pressure, humidity. Even aging of the crystal is a long-term factor influencing the oscillation of a crystal. Various time synchronization protocols have been developed over the years which perform message exchanges at different points in time to keep the clocks in sync.
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