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In a multi-party video conference, multiple users simultaneously distribute video streams to their receivers. As the traditional server-based solutions incur high infrastructure and bandwidth cost, conventional Peer-To-Peer (P2P) solutions only leveraging end users' upload bandwidth, are normally not self-sustainable: the video streaming workload increases quadratically with the number of users as each user could generate and distribute video streams, while the user upload bandwidth only increases linearly. Recently, hybrid solutions have been proposed that employ helpers to address the bandwidth deficiency in P2P video conferencing swarms. It is also noticed that a system hosting multiple parallel conferencing swarms can benefit from cross-swarm bandwidth sharing.
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