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The problem of optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) was first studied using graph theoretic and mathematical programming methods. However, due to the increase of renewable generations, PMUs may be required not only in transmission networks, but also in sub-transmission, or even distribution networks. Hence, the size of this PMU placement problem will become too big for mathematical programming approaches. As a result, in this paper, the authors investigated solving this problem using a novel metaheuristic technique, called Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO). CRO loosely mimics the interactions between molecules in a chemical reaction process.
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