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This paper studies the optimal resource allocation problem for the relay-assisted Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple-Access (OFDMA) -based multiuser system. A new transmission protocol, named hierarchical OFDMA, is proposed to support two-way transmissions between the Base Station (BS) and each Mobile User (MU) with or without an assisting Relay Station (RS) in "Relay" or "Direct" mode, respectively. In particular, two-way relaying is applied to MUs in relay mode with two relay-operations: Decode-and-Forward (DF) and Amplify-and-Forward (AF). Applying convex optimization techniques, efficient algorithms are developed for optimizing the resource allocation at the BS, RSs, and MUs.
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