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The ad hoc network is composed of multiple sensor nodes to serve various applications, such as data collection or environmental monitoring. In many applications, the sensor nodes near the boundary of the deployment region provide biased or low-quality information because they have limited number of neighboring nodes and only partial information is available. Hence, the boundary recognition is an important issue in the ad hoc networks. By the statistical approach in high node density networks, Fekete's pioneer work identified the boundary node by number of neighboring nodes and using a specific threshold.
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