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Future wireless networks will consist of multiple heterogeneous access technologies such as UMTS, WLAN and Wi-Max. The main challenge in these networks is to provide users with a wide range of services across different radio access technologies through a single mobile terminal. With regard to vertical hand off performance, there is a need for developing algorithms for connection management and optimal resource allocation for seamless mobility. The Media Independent Handover (MIH) architecture is used for the special case of handoff optimization between heterogeneous networks. The signaling messages are exchanged by triggers in 802.21 is obtained through Service Access Points (SAP).
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