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MANET being a self configuring and self changing network becomes unpredictable in nature poses number of challenges like network attacks including blackholes, wormholes, and gray holes along with problems like routing efficiency, distribution of load, energy consumption and security issues. Attacks like blackholes causes the delays in communication by their existence. MANET becomes more vulnerable to network attacks because of lack of centralized trusted authority. In MANET ad-hoc network all the routing information is managed by node itself. Routing protocols includes AODV, DSR, and DSDV etc.
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