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The tolerable packet-loss ratio of an Internet Protocol (IP) based wireless networks varies according to the specific services considered. File transfer for example must be error free but tolerates higher delays, whereas maintaining a low delay is typically more important in interactive Voice Over IP (VOIP) or video services. Classic Forward Error Correction (FEC) may be applied to the data to provide resilience against bit errors. A wireless IP network provides the opportunity for the inclusion of FEC at the physical, transport and application layers. The demarcation between the analogue and digital domain imposed at the PHYsical layer (PHY) predetermines the nature of the FEC scheme implemented at the various layers.
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