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In this paper, the authors develop a tractable framework for SINR analysis in downlink Heterogeneous Cellular Networks (HCNs) with flexible cell association policies. The HCN is modeled as a multi-tier cellular network where each tier's BSs are randomly located and have a unique transmit power, path loss exponent, spatial density, and bias towards admitting users. For example, typically picocells will have lower transmit power, higher path loss exponent (lower antennas), higher spatial density (many picocells per macrocell), and a positive bias so that macrocell users are actively encouraged to use the more lightly loaded picocells.
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