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The authors develop a partial equilibrium, perfectly competitive framework of a (potentially) vertically integrated industry. There are three types of firms: upstream firms that use primary factors to produce an intermediate; downstream firms that use primary factors and intermediates to produce a final good; and vertically integrated firms that do both. They establish conditions under which vertically integrated firms exist and outsource (part of) the production of the intermediate input. They study the changes in industry configurations resulting from changes in costs and demand.
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