PanOULU: Triple Helix Driven Municipal Wireless Network Providing Open and Free Internet Access

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This paper describes the birth, evolution and current status of a unique wireless city network provided by a consortium of municipalities, public research and educational institutions, and industry. The relevance of the network is illustrated with statistics of providing open and free Internet access to the general public and with R&D examples. The keys to the success of the network have included brave collaboration transgressing organizational boundaries, strong political and operative leadership, cost-effective outsourcing, and the 'KISS' principle in network design.