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Physically, MSA consists of a metallic radiating patch backed up by a dielectric substrate and a ground plane below that. These days, MSAs are widely used in many applications due to their inherent advantages such as low profile, lightweight, planer configuration and ease of fabrication. However, main limitation of MSAs is their inherently narrow BW, typically about 5% relative to resonant frequency. Most of the Wireless communication applications need antenna with broad BW. Therefore, most of the recent research activities in MSA are aimed towards development of MSAs with wide impedance BW without sacrificing return loss of the antenna. Many such techniques are proposed in literature. Most of these techniques are summarized.
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