Patients, Pacemakers, and Implantable Defibrillators: Human Values and Security for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices

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Executive Summary

Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs) improve patients' quality of life and help sustain their lives. In this study, the authors explore patient views and values regarding their devices to inform the design of computer security for wireless IMDs. They interviewed 13 individuals with implanted cardiac devices. Key questions concerned the evaluation of 8 mockups of IMD security systems. The results suggest that some systems that are technically viable are nonetheless undesirable to patients. Patients called out a number of values that affected their attitudes towards the systems, including perceived security, safety, freedom from unwanted cultural and historical associations, and self-image.

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