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Pedigree Types are an intuitive ownership type system requiring minimal programmer annotations. Reusing the vocabulary of human genealogy, Pedigree Types programmers can qualify any object reference with a pedigree - a child, sibling, parent, grandparent, etc - to indicate what relationship the object being referred to has with the referant on the standard ownership tree, following the owners-as-dominators convention. Such a qualifier serves as a heap shape constraint that must hold at run time and is enforced statically. Pedigree child captures the intention of encapsulation, i.e. ownership: The modified object reference is ensured not to escape the boundary of its parent. Among existing ownership type systems, Pedigree Types are closest to Universe Types.
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