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Cognitive Radio Ad-Hoc Networks (CRAHNs) enable the unlicensed users (secondary users) to utilize the spectrum holes unoccupied by the licensed users (primary users) so that the limited spectrum resource is significantly conserved. Recent research efforts have been focused on designing effective spectrum management mechanisms, e.g., spectrum sensing, spectrum decision, spectrum sharing, and spectrum mobility. However, to make CRAHNs function properly and meet performance requirements, CRAHNs have to maintain connectivity under the dynamically changing spectrum holes.
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