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Recent trends witness the shift of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution - Advanced (LTE-A) Radio Access Network (RAN) architecture from traditional a macro-cellular layout towards smaller base stations moving closer to end users. The evolved LTE-A RAN offers rich environment for multi-point and multihop cooperation and coordination resulting in increased capacity and more predictable channel conditions between heterogeneous base stations and end users. While these opportunities are recently well investigated at the physical layer through various Co-Operative Multi-Point (CoMP) schemes, upper layer protocols preserve the design proposed for macro-cellular single-hop data delivery.
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