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ABBA codes, a class of Quasi-orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (QSTBC), have been proposed to increase the code rate of Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (OSTBC). Since ABBA QSTBC have low complexity pair-wise complex-symbol decoding and performs better than OSTBC, they have been widely studied for coherent and noncoherent transmissions, beamforming, and others. Recently, Yuen et al. have shown that the ABBA codes also enable Pair-Wise Real-Symbol (PWRS) decoding, which is the Minimum Decoding Complexity (MDC) achievable by non-orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (STBC); they call such codes MDC codes. Thus, while their code rate is higher than that of OSTBC, their decoding complexity is equal to single complex symbol decoding.
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