Date Added: Dec 2012
UMTS networks promise to offer always on, ubiquitous connectivity with relatively low data rates for moderate to high mobility users in macro cell environments. On the other hand, IEEE 802.11 (WLAN) offers much higher data rates, comparable to 3G and other wireless local area networks, to users with low mobility characteristics in smaller cell environments. Where UMTS/WLAN networks overlap, a dual-mode UMTS/WLAN terminal could access high bandwidth data services where WLAN coverage is offered and use UMTS services elsewhere. This leads to fundamental questions on how UMTS and WLAN can be integrated, It were build two different scenarios, one for loose coupling scheme and the other one for open coupling scheme.