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Now-a-days the border security and safety are increasing more, due to the high interconnectivity all over the world. For homeland and national security, border control applications require a proper means of identifying the travelers to avoid intruders into the nation. For example, by what they have (passports, visas, and travel documents) and what they know (answers to several questions). To reduce such problems like fraud, ease identity checks, and enhance security, the authors propose an authentication methodology that combines multimodal biometrics and cryptographic mechanisms. Without a mandatory requirement smart-card-level devices on e-passports, they can accommodate faces and fingerprints for easier deployment.
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