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In the past decade, parallel disk systems have been developed to address the problem of I/O performance. A critical challenge with modern parallel I/O systems is that parallel disks consume a significant amount of energy in servers and high-performance computers. To conserve energy consumption in parallel I/O systems, one can immediately spin down disks when disk are idle; however, spinning down disks might not be able to produce energy savings due to penalties of spinning operations. Unlike powering up CPUs, spinning down and up disks need physical movements. Therefore, energy savings provided by spinning down operations must offset energy penalties of the disk spinning operations.
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