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In response to the steadily increasing demand for bandwidth and networking services for residential users as well as enterprise customers, Passive Optical Networks (PONs) have emerged as a promising access technology that offers flexibility, broad area coverage and cost-effective sharing of the expensive optical links compared with the conventional Point-To-Point (P2P) transport solutions. A Passive Optical Network (PON) is a single, shared optical fiber that uses inexpensive optical splitters to divide the single fiber into separate strands feeding individual subscribers. PONS is called "Passive" because, other than at the central office and subscriber endpoints, there are no active electronics within the access network. It was shown that PONs is also more energy efficient than Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) network technologies such as point-to-point and active optical access networks.
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