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The continued demand for wireless communication services is spearheading research in new techniques for enhancing spectral utilization. One such technique is the use of adaptive or smart antennas to produce a movable beam pattern that can be directed to the desired coverage areas. This characteristic minimizes the impact of unwanted noise and interference, thereby improving the quality of the desired signal. An adaptive antenna consists of an array of antenna elements. The signals picked up by these individual elements are combined through the use of a signal processing unit to form a beam pattern that can be steered toward the desired coverage direction. The performance of the signal processing unit is generally dictated by the beam forming algorithm used.
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