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It is well known that a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) transmission system can provide benefits on throughput and reliability in multipath fading channels over single-antenna systems. These benefits are now being realized; MIMO transmission schemes have been adopted in most wireless standards including 3GPP Long-Term Evolution (LTE), 3GPP LTE-Advanced, WiMax, and IEEE 802.16 m, where these standards are based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). OFDMA became popular partly because it is sum-rate optimal for general Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) channels, and the probability of OFDMA being optimal is nonnegligible for MIMO channels.
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