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The ZigBee specification builds upon IEEE 802.15.4 low-rate wireless personal area standards by adding security and mesh networking functionality. ZigBee networks may be secured through 128-bit encryption keys and by MAC address access control lists, yet these credentials are vulnerable to interception and spoofing via free software tools available over the Internet. This paper proposes a multi-factor PHY-MAC-NWK security framework for ZigBee that augments bit-level security using Radio Frequency (RF) PHY features. These features, or RF fingerprints, can be used to differentiate between dissimilar or like-model wireless devices. Previous PHY-based papers on mesh network device differentiation predominantly exploited the signal turn-on region, measured in nanoseconds.
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