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In this paper, the authors per form the first comprehensive study of physical-layer identification of RFID transponders. They propose several techniques for the extraction of RFID physical-layer fingerprints. They show that RFID transponders can be accurately identified in a controlled environment based on stable fingerprints corresponding to their physical-layer properties. They tested their techniques on a set of 50 RFID smartcards of the same manufacturer and type, and they show that these techniques enable the identification of individual transponders with an Equal Error Rate of 2.43% (single run) and 4.38% (two runs).
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