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The routing security issue is still largely open while multicast routing protocols, such as PIM-SM, have been widely deployed. Though Internet Service Providers (ISP) and Content Providers (CP) are very interested in multicast applications, the difficulty of multicast authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) has become one of the main reasons which prevent IP multicast from being widely accepted and commercially applied. Unlike unicast, the data packet delivery path in multicast routing is not only determined by routing infrastructure, but any terminal host can change the shape of multicast delivery tree by sending normal IGMP/MLD group membership request to multicast Designated Routers (DRs).
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