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The authors consider what constitutes identities in cryptography. Typical examples include people's name and social-security number, or their Fingerprint/iris-scan, or their address, or their (non-revoked) public-key coming from some trusted public-key infrastructure. In many situations, however, where people are defines their identity. For example, they know the role of a bank-teller behind a bullet-proof bank window not because she shows her credentials but by merely knowing her location. In this paper, they initiate the study of cryptographic protocols where the identity (or other credentials and inputs) of a party are derived from its geographic location.
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